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CHAPTER XX

CARGOES, STOWAGE OP CARGO, AND
CARGO INFORMATION

THE shipowner is responsible for improper or bad stowage,
and he is not relieved from liability for any loss occasioned
by this no matter how many clauses he may insert in his
bills of lading or charter-parties with that object.

The master has control and is directly responsible for the
safe handling, loading, stowage, and carriage, care and
custody of the goods, and it is one of his primary duties to
see that neither the ship nor the cargo is damaged. He is
considered to be a competent stevedore and have a full
knowledge of safe stowage.

The order of shipment is arranged by the master, and
several points must be borne in mind. First, cargo is stowed
in the ship in the reverse order to that in which the goods
are to be taken out, for example, a ship calling at three
ports, namely, A, B, and C, consecutively, must load its
cargo in the order of C, B, and A, cargo for Port C first, and
cargo for Port A last, the master bearing in mind, whilst
the loading is in operation, that when the cargo for Port A
is removed, the ship is still partly loaded, and the cargo
remaining on board must be in such a position that it does
not have to be rearranged before the vessel may safely
proceed to port B. The same conditions apply at Port B,
when the caigo on board for Port C is the only cargo
remaining stowed.

A competent stevedore would in his loading operations
see that heavy cargoes were not stowed over light cargoes,
and it is the master's responsibility to see that the stevedore
properly carries out his duties in this respect. Also types
of cargo which would be liable to cause damage to other
cargo should be separated in an efficient manner as a
preventive of possible cargo claims.

Any cargo which may be found damaged when loading is
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